The Lemnaceae are the smallest, fastest growing and simplest of flowering plants, representing an overlooked and potentially high-impact biofuel feedstock that is ripe for exploitation. Members of the family Lemnaceae are tiny aquatic monocots that range in size from 1.5 cm long (Spirodela polyrhiza) to less than a millimeter (Wolffia globosa). Many species are currently developed for industrial uses. For instance, the EPA uses Lemna minor to test water quality. The plants readily grow on agricultural and municipal wastewater, an abundant, infinitely renewable, low-cost substrate that is not typically used for agricultural applications in developed countries. The plants are perennials with worldwide distribution, growing anywhere there is water and sun. These plants require little mechanical support or vascular tissue (the smallest members of the family completely lack xylem and phloem) so most cells resemble maturing leaves expending very little photosynthetic energy on plant structures. As a result, vegetative propagation of these plants has unparalleled biomass yield potential (more than double that of most conventional crops). Some species form specialized fronds (modified leaves), called turions that accumulate high levels of starch (40 to 70%) causing them to sink, thus providing an ideal system for continual harvest. Current efforts focus on harnessing this developmental switch to allow for continual growth and harvesting of duckweed biomass.